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Effectiveness of (and good reads on) Bilingual Education

Greene, J. P. (1998). A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Bilingual Education. Unpublished paper of the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, Claremont Graduate School.

MacSwan, J., Thompson, M.S., Rolstad, K., McAlister, K. and Lobo, G. (2017). Three theories of the effects of language education programs: An empirical evaluation of bilingual and English-only policies. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 37, 218– 240. See

McField, G.P. and McField, D.R. (2014). The consistent outcome of bilingual education programs: A meta-analysis of meta-analyses. In G.P. McField (ed.) The Miseducation of English Learners (pp. 267–298). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.

Reljic, G., Ferring,D., & Martin, R. (2015). A meta-analysis on the effectiveness of bilingual programs in Europe. Review of Educational Research, 85(1), 92-128.

Rossell, C. & Baker, K. (1996). The Educational Effectiveness of Bilingual Education. Research in the Teaching of English, February, 30(1) 7-74.

Slavin, R. E. & Cheung, A. (2003, December). Effective Reading Programs for English Language Learners: A Best Evidence Synthesis. Report 66. Washington, D.C.: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk.

Sugarman, J. (2018). A matter of design: English learner program models in K-12 education. Migration Policy Institute, Research Brief Issue 2. Washington, DC.

Thomas, W.P. and Collier, V.P. (1997).

School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition.

Willig, A. C. (1985). A meta-analysis of selected studies on the effectiveness of bilingual education. Review of Educational Research, 55(3), 269-317.

Academic Journals

Recent studies

Menken, K. & Solorza, C. (2013). Where Have All the Bilingual Programs Gone?!: Why Prepared School Leaders are Essential for Bilingual Education. Retrieved from

Bilingual education in the news

Multilingualism: Need for Languages in the US, Language Magazine

Benefits of Bilingual Education, 2020, USAToday


Why aren't there more bilingual programs in Florida?

Florida legislators have not responded to the demand for bilingual education programs as other states have. Florida, once a bilingual leader in the 1960s, lags behind other states in providing supports for our multilingual students today.

Contact your representative or senator to show your affirmation for bilingual programs.

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